The list of most common eye diseases and treatments currently available

As the UK’s no.1 most trusted eye specialist, we treat thousands of eyes every year. And our ophthalmic consultants are some of the most experienced eye surgeons in the world, so we know a thing or two about eye diseases and other common eye conditions that can affect your vision.

We’ve put together this list to highlight some of the most common eye diseases – along with the symptoms you need to look out for, and the treatments currently available.
Common eye diseases: symptoms and treatments

Some eye diseases don’t present with any early symptoms and you’ll not notice any change in the appearance of your eyes or with your vision until the disease has progressed, so we recommend that you protect your vision with regular eye assessments at your local optician or eye hospital, because early treatment is the best way to prevent long-term problems.

But if you’re currently experiencing problems and wondering whether you might be suffering from an eye disease or eye disorder, here is our list of the most common eye diseases and their associated symptoms:


Cataracts are one of the most common eye conditions we treat. They are classified as a degenerative eye disease as they’re more commonly found in those over 65 years or over. They are so common that over 90% of people with experience cataracts at some point in their lifetime.

Because cataracts are a natural part of the ageing process there is no known cause, but they can be closely associated with diabetes and more common in those with family members who have been affected.
Signs and symptoms of cataracts:
  • Cloudy vision
  • Poor night vision
  • Double vision
  • Glare from bright lights
  • Cloudy film over the natural lens
Treatment for cataracts: the best treatment for cataracts is Refractive Lens Exchange – where the natural lens of the affected eye is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). This treatment is a quick and painless procedure, usually completed in less than 30 minutes - using advanced femtosecond laser technology. And depending on the replacement lens you choose, you can look forward to vision that is even better than your before-cataracts vision.

Age-related macular degeneration

AMD is another eye condition that is more likely to affect the over 65 age group. It involves the breakdown of the macula – the middle part of your retina that enables you to see things in detail. Unlike cataracts, which are a natural part of the ageing process, AMD can be exacerbated by poor lifestyle choices such as smoking, a poor diet and obesity.

There are two types of age-related macular degeneration: wet or dry. But both involve the formation of waste deposits under your retina that stop nutrients flowing into the cells. Over time, this results in cell death and progressive deterioration of your vision.
Signs and symptoms of age-related macular degeneration:

- Blurred vision
- Reduction in vision relating to detailed activities such as reading and recognising faces
- Colour distortion
Treatment for age-related macular degeneration: AMD can, in some cases, be associated with major vision loss, but there are lots of treatments you can have to prevent the progression of the disease and protect your vision. If you think you may be suffering from AMD it is extremely important to have your eyes assessed by a specialist who will advise you on which of the following treatments will be most beneficial for you:
Centrasight implantable telescope
- surgical implantation of a miniature telescope

- a form of lens replacement surgery specifically for AMD

Injection therapy
– this is the most popular form of treatment for AMD, and it can help slow progression of the disease, but it is important to begin treatment at the first sign of disease.

Glaucoma does not refer to one single eye condition, but rather a range of conditions that are connected to damage to the optic nerve – most often caused by increased intraocular pressure. In severe cases, left untreated, it can lead to blindness, so it is incredibly important to have your eyes examined and begin treatment as soon as possible.
Signs and symptoms of Glaucoma:
  • Blurred vision
  • Headaches
  • Sickness and vomiting
  • Multi-coloured halos
  • Pain in the eyes

Treatment for glaucoma: There is no one treatment for glaucoma because it encompasses a variety of different eye conditions – relating to the optic never, so every patient’s case if different. But there are numerous treatment options that can help protect your vision and reduce some of the symptoms of glaucoma, including:
  • Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT)
  • MLT Micropulsed Diode Laser Trabeculoplasty
  • iStent
  • Trabeculectomy
  • 12- Month Monitoring service

*To have your eyes thoroughly assessed and to discuss the most suitable type of glaucoma treatment for your individual case, we would recommend you book a free consultation with one of our world-class surgeons at one of our 33 specialist eye clinics and eye hospitals. 
To read more about some of the other eye diseases and eye conditions that could be affecting your vision, please visit the Treatments & Conditions section of our website or call us for advice on 0808 168 9020.

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